Antagonistic effect between Citrullus colocynthis extract and TiO2 nanoparticles in anticancer combination therapy
The objective of this study is to determine the level of some element and chemical components of aquatic extract of fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and study the cytotoxic effect of crude extract of plant alone and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) alone on two cancer cell lines: Glioblastoma-Multiforme cell culture (AMGM), mice mammary carcinoma cell line 2003 (AMN3) and Recombinant mouse epithelial cell line expressing human poliovirus receptor (CD155) on the cell surface (L20B) compared with combination of them in vitro. The levels of Cu, Cd, Mn, K, Fe, Co, Zn, N and Ti were very low and phosphor was absent. The level of total proteins was 0.138 %. Twenty nine compounds were identified by GC-MS. The major components were 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl elaidate (30.33 %), followed by 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (29.36 %). All concentrations of plant extract reduced cellular viability of both cancer cell lines, (AMN3 and AMGM), compared with control. The IC50 value was 8.6 mg/ml and 0.013 mg/ml respectively. While there were no effect on L20B cell line. In the treatment of TiO2 NPs, there were reductions in AMN3 cell proliferation in the concentrations (0.2 mg/ml- 0.02 µg/ml). IC50 value was (0.42 mg/ml). While the reduction in AMGM cell line was observed at 2 mg/ml- 0.2 µg/ml concentrations. IC50 value was 0.05 mg/ml. In combination treatment against AMN3 cell line, most concentrations of combination’s treatment, except the high concentrations, reduced cell viability. IC50 value was 1.25 mg/ml of plant with 0.47 mg/ml of NPs. The same were found with AMGM cell line. IC50 value was 6.35 mg/ml of plant combined by 0.635 mg/ml of NPs. All combination points located in the antagonism area in AMN3 and AMGM. Although there were good anticancer activities of each of plant extract and nanoparticles alone but there were Antagonistic effect between them in combination therapy.